Gender Equality in Lebanon

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Lebanon
flag_Lebanon.png
Flag of Lebanon
Population (in Mil.) 4.42
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 43.21
Sex Ratio (m/f) 0.96
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.064935065
Fertility Rate 1.77
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) 0.27
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 54
Women in Parliament (in %) 3.1
INDICES
Human Development Index 72/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index /86
Gender Inequality Index 72/186
Gender Equity Index 112/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 79/128
Global Gender Gap Index /68
More information on variables

Social Institutions

Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire and then a French colony, Lebanon gained independence in 1943.[1] The country experienced 15 years of civil war (1975-1990), and since then, the ongoing political and security situation has remained volatile.[2] Lebanon is classed as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank.[3] The country’s economy and infrastructure were severely damaged by the civil war, and by the more recent (2006) conflict involving Israel.[4] Most of the population are either Muslim or Christian; within both these categories there are a large number of different sects, of which 18 are officially recognised.[5] Despite a relatively liberal legal framework, high levels of female education, and an active women’s movement, women in Lebanon face discrimination in their legal rights, protection from violence, and low visibility in employment and public life. Discriminatory social norms that restrict women’s de facto rights to be active in the public sphere are in part to blame, as is the ongoing lack of security and political instability.[6] Article 8 of the Lebanese Constitution asserts the equality of rights and duties of all citizens, regardless of gender, and in contrast to neighbouring countries, Sharia law is not held up as the main source of legislation.[7] Lebanon ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1997 with reservations to Article 9(2), regarding nationality; several subparagraphs of Article 16(1), related to personal status laws; and Article 29(1), on the settlement of disputes.[8] Lebanon has published CEDAW in the official Gazette, giving it primacy over national laws, one of the few Arab countries to do so. The country has not yet ratified the Optional Protocol.[9] Lebanon is ranked 71st in the 2011 Human Development Index with a score of 0.739.[10] The Gender Inequality Index score is 0.440 placing Lebanon at 76 out of 146 countries.[11] Lebanon is ranked 118th in the 2011 Global Gender Gap Index, with a score of 0.6083.[12]

Discriminatory Family Code

Currently in Lebanon, personal status laws that govern women’s rights within marriage and in relation to inheritance vary according religious affiliation: there are four different personal status codes covering Lebanese Muslims, while the six different Catholic denominations officially recognised in the country are covered by one personal status code, and there is another for Greek Orthodox Christians.[13] For each sect, matters relating to personal status are determined by religious courts (Sharia in the case of Muslims and ecclesiastical in the case of Christians).[14] Chemali Khalaf, writing in a 2010 report for Freedom House, is of the view that all of the personal status codes contain ‘systematic bias’ against women, resulting in discriminatory provisions.[15] Elsewhere, Lebanon’s third periodic report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) states that “whichever denomination she belongs to, a Lebanese woman is a victim of gender discrimination in her contact with the personal status laws”.[16] Under pressure from women’s rights activists, lawmakers have attempted in the past to introduce a unified civil status code (most recently in 2009), but this has so far not met with success.[17] According to a 2009 survey carried out by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) (hereafter IFES / IWPR), there is little support among women of all religious groups for the introduction of a civil marriage law that would remove much of this legal discrimination in Lebanon, with 64% opposing.[18]

The legal age of marriage varies amongst the different personal status codes, but two common features are evident: first, that women can generally marry at a younger age than men (with the exception of the Greek Orthodox Church); and second, that marriages can be authorised at even earlier ages.[19] The recognised marriageable age for women ranges between 12.5 (for members of the Jewish faith) and 18 years, and between 17 (for Sunni Muslims)and 18 years for men.[20] According to official statistics held by the UN, in 2004 5.3% of girls aged 15-19 were married, divorced, or widowed.[21] Women and men are generally free to choose their own marriage partners, but the family usually expects to play a role.[22] According to a survey carried out by IFES / IWPR in 2009, virtually all respondents felt that young women and men should be free to decide who to marry, but with guidance from their parents.[23] Inter-religious marriages are also increasingly common in Lebanon, although officially, Muslim women do not have the right to marry non-Muslim men unless they convert, and other sects do not permit their members to marry outside the faith.[24] In order to get around the sectarian personal status codes, Chemali Khalaf reports that some couples able to afford to do so opt to travel abroad to marry in civil ceremonies outside the country; such civil marriages are then recognised, and regulated, by the civil courts in Lebanon.[25]

Polygamy is permissible only among Sunni and Shiite Muslims, following provisions in Sharia law.[26] Muslim men from these sects are allowed to take up to four wives, provided they can support all wives financially and treat them all fairly and equally.[27]

Although some personal status codes assign rights and duties equally to both spouses during married life (e.g. the Catholic and the Greek Orthodox personal codes), the Muslim personal codes designate the husband as the head of the family and assign parental authority to fathers.[28] This arrangement appears to have some level of popular support: in a 2009 survey, 58% of men and 39% of women stated that a wife should obey her husband, even if she disagrees with him.[29] Most personal status codes also name men as the rightful guardians, whereas women are merely custodians with few legal rights.[30] Upon birth, children are assigned to the religious sect of their father. Women cannot confer citizenship to children born to a non-Lebanese father.[31] This particularly affects women married to Palestinian refugees (of whom there are approximately 350,000 in Lebanon), whose children are then denied citizenship rights, including access to education and healthcare, and must obtain residency and work permits in order to live in Lebanon legally.[32] There have been several campaigns in support of Lebanese women’s right to extend their nationality to their foreign spouses and children of that union, with a particular focus on the problems they face. The Minister of the Interior responded by issuing Decree 4186 in 2010 to accord foreign husbands and children of Lebanese women courtesy residency rights. (Women’s Learning Partnership (2009), “Interior Ministry to Issue Non-National Families Of Lebanese Women Unconditional Five-Year Residency Permits”) came into force two months later (http://www.learningpartnership.org/blog/2010/09/lebanon-decree4186-residency/) In the event of divorce, all personal status codes initially grant child custody to the mother.[33] In some cases, custody is transferred back to the father when children reach a certain age: for Evangelical Christian sects, this is 12 for boys and girls, for Catholics two, and for Sunni Muslims, 13 for boys and 15 for girls.[34] That said, courts often grant ongoing physical custody to the mother beyond this, if they feel that this is in the child’s best interests.[35] Most Christian denominations and Islamic Shia consider that divorced mothers who wish to remarry forfeit their custody rights.[36] If the mother dies, or is absent for other reasons, the Sunni sect normally transfers custody to the closest female relative.[37] Under the Muslim personal status codes, it is much easier for men than women to obtain a divorce, although all divorces must be registered with the court in order to be legally recognised.[38] Men have the right to repudiate (divorce unilaterally) their wives, whereas women can only apply for a divorce under a certain set of conditions (e.g. the husband’s desertion, or illness) or forego their dowry and financial maintenance by obtaining a khula divorce.[39] Catholic sects prohibit divorce, but marriages can be annulled for a wide range of reasons, including domestic violence.[40]

Inheritance laws differ between Muslims and non-Muslims.[41] Islamic law provides for detailed and complex calculations of inheritance shares.[42] Muslim women may inherit from their fathers, mothers, husbands or children and, under, certain conditions, from other family members.[43] But their share is generally smaller than a man’s entitlement: daughters, for example, typically inherit half as much as sons.[44] In addition, Muslims cannot leave property to non-Muslims, meaning that non-Muslim women married to Muslim men cannot inherit from their husbands if they die first unless they convert.[45] While women are legally entitled to inherit land, many women cede this land to their male relatives, in order to ensure that land is retained in the male line.[46] It should be noted that the Shia approach to inheritance is more egalitarian as regards female heirs, which leads some Sunni fathers to convert to Shiism when they near death so that their daughters do not have to share their inheritance with their uncles if the parents have no sons. The Civil Law of Inheritance (1959) for non-Muslims establishes that men and women shall be treated equally and receive the same shares of inheritance.[47] In reality, some families take measures to ensure that male heirs receive more than female heirs.[48]

Restricted Physical Integrity

There is currently no legislation in place protecting women from domestic violence, although as of November 2010, a draft law was under consideration that would allow domestic violence cases to be heard in closed courts, as well as enabling abused women to file for protection orders and for courts to force perpetrators to undergo rehabilitation.[49]

Awareness of violence against women, including domestic violence, has increased in recent years, thanks largely to efforts by local and regional NGOs.[50] However, it is impossible to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in Lebanon, as levels of under-reporting remain high, with many women afraid to speak out about violence that they are experiencing at home, for fear of being blamed for the abuse, or of bringing shame on the family.[51] In addition, social and family pressure, as well as lack of financial independence, compels many women to remain in abusive relationships, and they are sometimes instructed to return to abusive husbands by religious courts.[52] Police are also reluctant to intervene in what is considered a taboo issue, unless a woman has formally pressed charges.[53] The design and implementation of government policies in this area has also been rather poor, and as of 2010, there existed no competent authority responsible for dealing with domestic violence cases.[54] Some limited support is however provided by NGOs, including hotlines and refuges, who do work in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice.[55]

Rape is a criminal offence in Lebanon, with a minimum sentence of five years, but a rapist can escape prison if he agrees to marry his victim.[56] It is not clear whether the victim’s consent is necessary in such circumstances. The law does not recognise spousal rape.[57] There is also no law dealing specifically with sexual harassment.[58]

So-called ‘honour’ killings do take place in Lebanon, although they are rarely prosecuted and are often reported as suicides, meaning it is very difficult to ascertain how many women die this way each year.[59] Previously, under the Penal Code, perpetrators can receive a reduced sentence if they can demonstrate that they committed the crime after having discovered that the victim was engaged in socially unacceptable sexual relations.[60] However, the Lebanese parliament voted in 2011 to strike Article 562 from the Penal Code, which had allowed mitigated punishment for honour crimes. There are also different provisions for women and men in the penal code relating to adultery (which is a criminal offence): for men, the act is only considered adulterous if it has taken place in the marital home or if the adulterous relationship is made public, while a woman can be convicted of adultery wherever the relationship has taken place.[61] In addition, minimum sentencing options for women are higher than those for men in cases of adultery.[62] The parliament adopted a law on trafficking in persons in August 2011. While they usually enter the country legally, rather than being trafficked, female migrant domestic workers are said to be at particular risk of physical and sexual abuse at the hands of their employers, and are afforded little protection under labour legislation.[63]

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is not commonly practised in Lebanon.[64]

Women are free to make independent decisions about their reproductive health, and to access contraception without consulting their husbands, although lack of access to affordable health insurance compromises the capacity of some women to access all forms of healthcare.[65] Reproductive healthcare services are provided through primary healthcare clinics.[66] According to UNFPA, 58% of sexually active women reported using some form of contraception, including so-called ‘traditional’ methods.[67] Abortion is only legal in cases where the pregnant woman’s life is in danger.[68]

Son Bias

According to UNFPA, infant mortality rates are higher for boys than for girls.[69] Gender-disaggregated data regarding immunisation rates is not available, but overall immunisation rates are high, according to UNICEF (between 95% and 99%, depending on the vaccine).[70] Gross primary school enrolment rates are above 100% boys and girls, but at secondary level, more girls than boys are enrolled (boys 85%, girls 93%).[71] According to a 2009 survey carried out by IFES / IWPR, 22% of women questioned cited family obligations or expectations as obstacles to educational aspiration and attainment, as opposed to 14% of men.[72] The figures above would indicate that Lebanon is not a country of concern in regard to son preference in early childhood care or access to education. The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 0.96.[73]

There is no evidence to suggest it is a country of concern in relation to missing women.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

Women have the same rights as men to conclude contracts and own and administer property, including land.[74] Within marriage, regardless of religious affiliation, each spouse has the right to own and administer property separately and independently.[75] In practice, women are often heavily influenced by husbands and male family members in regard to the administration of property, as well as income and other financial assets.[76] Patriarchal traditions may work against women in some aspects of ownership, but limitations more often arise from the fact that many women remain unaware of their economic and legal rights. This is particularly true in rural areas. Control over financial assets seems to be closely linked to education and employment status: according to a survey carried out in 2009 by IFES / IWPR, 28% of women who worked owned land or an apartment or house, compared to 19% of women who didn’t work, and as did 39% of women with a university education, compared to 26% who had secondary education.[77]

Women are legally entitled to access to bank loans and can enter into financial contracts, but experience some limitations in practice. According to a survey carried out in 2009 by IFES / IWPR, 46% of married working women felt that they would be able to obtain a loan on their own, without help from a spouse or parent; levels varied considerably according to how much the woman earned, and her level of education.[78] According to the 2006 CEDAW report, among an estimated 30 institutions lending to small-scale rural projects, only nine provide men and women with equal conditions.[79] Moreover, women’s share of the loans from these nine credit institutions ranges between only 10 and 20%.[80] As of 2006, there were two organisations that lent exclusively to rural women, however data on the number and size of the loans are not available.[81]

Restricted Civil Liberties

There are no legal restrictions on freedom of movement for Lebanese women, and the law allows women to apply for passports without the permission of their husbands.[82] In practice, the extent to which individual women can move freely outside the household or travel abroad often depends on their husbands and other family members.[83] In rural areas, women’s freedom of movement may be restricted by their families, while in urban areas, some women have considerable freedom of movement (including going out at night without a male chaperon) and are able to live on their own.[84]

Freedom of expression is respected in Lebanon, and there is a vibrant media scene.[85] While there are some prominent female journalists in Lebanon, women for the most part remain under-represented in media structures, and representations of women in the media most typically portray women in gender-stereotypical ways.[86] Rights to freedom of association and assembly are also generally respected.[87] According to Freedom House, there is a vibrant civil society in Lebanon, and NGOs operate freely.[88] Women and men have the same right to vote and stand for election in Lebanon, but women remain under-represented in political life in Lebanon, and as of early 2011, there were only four women in the Lebanese national assembly (out of 128 – 3.1%).[89] An attempt to introduce a 30% gender quota as part of the 2008 electoral law failed.[90] According to a 2009 survey carried out by IFES / IWPR, most women (67%) and men (65%) were in favour of the introduction of a gender quota in the national assembly. Of those against, the most common reason cited (50%) was that quotas are unfair and against the principle of equal opportunity, although 18% believed that ‘women have no place in politics’.[91] In addition, the majority of respondents, male and female, supported the idea of women standing for political office, and felt that women were perfectly capable of making their own decisions about who to vote for in elections.[92] There is positive progress for women’s participation at a municipal level - 531 women were elected to local councils in 2009, more than double the number in 2004 while and 57 women in 2009 were elected as mayor. That said, overall, most men and women believed men made better political and business leaders than women.[93] In contrast to the small numbers of women active in the formal political sphere, Lebanon has long had a vocal and active women’s movement.[94] Women’s rights activists have lobbied and demonstrated in support of changes to the nationality law (which does not allow women to pass citizenship onto their children) and the penal code, for the removal of other discriminatory legal provisions, for the introduction of legislation to protect women from domestic violence, and for improvements to women’s economic opportunities.[95] There is also a large number of women active in the judiciary: according to Chemali Khalaf, women hold 38% of civil, commercial, and criminal court judgeships.[96]

Pregnant women are entitled to seven weeks’ paid maternity leave.[97] In 2001, legislation was introduced ensuring equal pay for women in Lebanon.[98] The workforce participation rate for women is 24.1% compared to 74.8% for men. There also appears to be a significant wage gap between men and women, more pronounced in the private sector.[99] The law prohibits ‘unnatural sexual intercourse’, which has been used in the past to prosecute men and (less frequently) women engaging in consensual same-sex sexual relationships.[100] However, in December 2009, a judge ruled that this provision did not in fact apply to homosexual activity.[101] There are several organisations working on behalf of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, and a number of demonstrations in support of LGBT rights have been held without incident.[102]


References

  1. Chemal Khalaf, Mona (2010) ‘Lebanon’, in Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin, eds., (2010) Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY: Freedom House; Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, p.249
  2. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Lebanon, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html (accessed 1 March 2011); Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Lebanon, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7859 (accessed 1 March 2011)
  3. World Bank (n.d.) Data: Lebanon, http://data.worldbank.org/country/lebanon (accessed 1 March 2011)
  4. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Lebanon, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html (accessed 1 March 2011)
  5. Reference 1, p.257
  6. Reference 1, p.251
  7. Reference 1, p.252
  8. United Nations Treaty Collection (UNTC) (n.d): Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. - CEDAW: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 1 March 2011); - Optional Protocol: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8-b&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 1 March 2011) Reference 1, p.256
  9. United Nations Treaty Collection (UNTC) (n.d): Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. - CEDAW: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 1 March 2011); - Optional Protocol: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8-b&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 1 March 2011)
  10. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012. p.128
  11. Reference 10 p.140
  12. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012. p.11
  13. International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) (n.d.-a) ‘Focus on Lebanon | Attitudes Towards Policy Change Topic Brief’, The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project , p.2; Reference 1, p.258
  14. Reference 1, p.254
  15. Reference 1, pp.251, 258
  16. Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2006) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States Parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Third periodic report of States Parties Lebanon’, CEDAW/C/LBN/3, CEDAW, New York, availabl at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws40.htm (accessed 1 March 2011), p.28
  17. Reference 1, p.258
  18. International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) (n.d.-a) ‘Focus on Lebanon | Attitudes Towards Policy Change Topic Brief’, The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project , p.2
  19. Reference 1, p.259; Reference 16, pp.86-87
  20. Reference 16, p.87
  21. United Nations Population Division / DESA (2008) World Marriage Data. Available to download at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WMD2008/Main.html (accessed 11 October 2010).
  22. Reference 1, p.260
  23. International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) (n.d.- d) ‘Focus on Lebanon | Social Attitudes Toward Women Topic Brief’, The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project, p.10
  24. Reference 1, p.260; Reference 16, P.88
  25. Reference 1, P.259; Reference 16, P.85
  26. Reference 16, P.95
  27. Reference 16, P.95
  28. Reference 1, Pp.259, 261
  29. Reference 23, P.12
  30. Reference 1, p.261
  31. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.206
  32. Reference 1, p.252
  33. Reference 1, p.261
  34. Reference 1, p.261
  35. Reference 1, p.261
  36. Reference 1, p.262
  37. REFERENCE 16, p.94
  38. Reference 1, p.260; Reference 16, p.95
  39. Reference 1, p.260
  40. Reference 1, p.261; REFERENCE 16, p.94
  41. Reference 1, p.265
  42. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2005) ‘Islam, land & property research series’, Paper 6: Islamic inheritance laws and systems, Nairobi, Kenya. Available at www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3546_3490_ILP%206.doc (accessed 10 February 2011) , p.11; REFERENCE 16, p.96
  43. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2005) ‘Islam, land & property research series’, Paper 6: Islamic inheritance laws and systems, Nairobi, Kenya. Available at www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3546_3490_ILP%206.doc (accessed 10 February 2011) , p.11
  44. Reference 44, p.11
  45. Reference 1, p.265
  46. Reference 1, p.265
  47. Reference 1, p.265; REFERENCE 16, p.96
  48. REFERENCE 16, p.97
  49. Murdock (2010). Currently, domestic violence cases are heard in ordinary, open courts, which is a factor in discouraging women to file cases.
  50. Reference 1, p.263
  51. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York, p.148; Reference 1, p.263
  52. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York, p.148; Reference 1, p.262; REFERENCE 16, p.97
  53. Reference 1, p.262
  54. Reference 1, p.262
  55. Reference 1, p.263
  56. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York, p.148; Reference 1, p.254
  57. Reference 1, p.254
  58. Reference 1, pp.263, 267
  59. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.148; Reference 1, p.262
  60. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York, p.148; Reference 1, p.253
  61. Reference 1, p.253
  62. Reference 1, p.253
  63. Reference 32, p.206; United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.148; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Lebanon, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7859 (accessed 1 March 2011) ; Reference 1, p.267. See also Human Rights Watch (2010)
  64. Reference 1, p.274
  65. Reference 1, pp.273, 274
  66. Reference 1, p.273
  67. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2010) State of the World’s Population 2010. From conflict and crisis to renewal: generations of change, UNFPA, New York, p.96 (no data source given).
  68. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2007)’World abortion policies’, data downloaded from http://www.devinfo.info/genderinfo/ (accessed 21 October 2010).
  69. Reference 68, p.102 (no data source provided)
  70. UNICEF (2007) State of the World’s Children : the Double Dividend of Gender Equality, New York: UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07.pdf , p.111
  71. Reference 71, p.119
  72. International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) (n.d.- c) ‘Focus on Lebanon | Economic & Educational Status Topic Brief’, The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project, p.2
  73. Central Intelligence Agency (2012) The World Fact Book: Sex Ratio, available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html, accessed 14 March 2012.
  74. Reference 1, p.264; Reference 16, P.83
  75. Reference 1, P.264; Reference 16, P.86
  76. Reference 1, p.264
  77. International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) (n.d.-b) ‘Focus on Lebanon | Control of Financial Assets Topic Brief’, The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project , p.6
  78. Reference 78, P.8
  79. Reference 16, P.78
  80. Reference 16, P.78
  81. Reference 16, p.78
  82. Reference 1, p.258
  83. Reference 1, pp.258, 274
  84. Reference 1, p.258
  85. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Lebanon, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7859 (accessed 1 March 2011)
  86. Reference 1, p.275
  87. Reference 86
  88. Reference 86
  89. Reference 86; Inter-Parliamentary Union (n.d.); Reference 1, p.269
  90. Reference 1, p.270
  91. Reference 18
  92. Reference 23, pp.2, 5
  93. Reference 23, p.7
  94. Reference 1, pp.249-250
  95. Reference 1, pp.251, 256-257, 268
  96. Reference 1, p.255
  97. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2009) Database of Conditions of Work and Employment Laws, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/travmain.home (accessed 1 March 2011)
  98. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York, p.148
  99. Reference 73, p.7
  100. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Lebanon’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136073.htm (accessed 1 March 2011)
  101. Reference 101
  102. Reference 101

The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women? 

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Lebanon, please visit the Women, Business and
the Law Lebanon
page.

Sources

External Links


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