Gender Equality in Bangladesh

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Bangladesh
flag_Bangladesh.png
Flag of Bangladesh
Population (in Mil.) 154.70
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 116.03
Sex Ratio (m/f) 0.95
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.028985507
Fertility Rate 2.6
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) 0.52
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 10.6
Women in Parliament (in %) 19.7
INDICES
Human Development Index 146/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index 63/86
Gender Inequality Index 146/186
Gender Equity Index 114/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 105/128
Global Gender Gap Index /68
More information on variables

Social Institutions

Formerly East Pakistan, Bangladesh came into being as an independent country in 1971, following a violent struggle between the two parts of Pakistan.[1] The country was ruled by a military government for 15 years up to 1990, when democratic elections were held.[2] Bangladesh is one of the world’s most densely populated countries, with high rates of poverty and outmigration, as people leave to seek work abroad, often in dangerous and exploitative conditions.[3] Conditions for many of those living in poverty – particularly in agricultural areas – are exacerbated by the country’s vulnerability to floods and cyclones.[4] Bangladesh is classed as a low-income country by the World Bank.[5] Bangladesh has made significant gains in the area of gender equality in recent years. On the legislative front, the government has introduced significant reforms including legislation on violence against women, equal pay and maternity leave entitlements and parliamentary quotas.[6] Further in 2011, the government adopted the long awaited National Women Development Policy which, when enacted through legislative reform, aims to secure women’s rights in a range of areas.[7] Bangladesh has been impressive gains with respect to gender equality in education: from 2004 to 2007 the female literacy rate increased from 46% to 54%.[8] Despite recent progress however, gender gaps remain in employment.[9] The Constitution affirms gender equality.[10] Bangladesh ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1984, and the Optional Protocol in 2000.[11] Bangladesh is ranked in 146th place in the 2011 Human Development Index (out of 187 countries), with a score of 0.500, and the country’s Gender Inequality Index rating is 0.550 (placing it in 112th place, out of 146 countries).[12] Bangladesh is ranked in 69th place in the 2011 Global Gender Index, with a score of 0.6812.[13]

Discriminatory Family Code

Bangladesh has outlawed early marriage and has raised the minimum age for legal marriage to 18 years for women and 21 for men. In addition, acts passed in 2004 and 2005 now make it a legal requirement to register marriages and births, with two years imprisonment the ultimate penalty for failure a marriage.[14] United Nations data estimates that 48% of all girls between 15 and 19 years of age were married, divorced or widowed.[15] Elsewhere, UNICEF found that 33% of women between 15 and 49 were married before their 15th birthday, while the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found that 78% of women between 20 and 49 years of age were married before age 18.[16] A 2007 Pew Global Attitudes Survey found that popular attitudes limit women’s autonomy in regard to marriage: the survey revealed that only 12% of respondents believed that it was better for a woman to choose her own husband. Three times as many believed that it should be up to her family, while a majority believed that the woman and her family should decide together.[17] Dowry payment is illegal, but occurs frequently.[18] Polygamy is legal in Bangladesh, but many consider the practice to be outdated and the practice is highly discouraged.[19] A 2002 World Values Survey found that nearly 83% of respondents either disagreed or disagreed strongly with the statement, “It is acceptable for a man to have more than one wife.”[20] Islamic law regards women as “custodians” but not legal guardians of their children. In the event of divorce, women can retain custody of sons until age seven and daughters until puberty. If a father dies, his children may be taken away by his family. Hindu law also views fathers as the natural, legal guardians of children.[21] Women’s rights to divorce are limited under Islamic law.[22] Perhaps for this reason, more than 87% of Bangladeshi women believe that divorce is never justifiable.[23] According to the 2010 CEDAW report, divorced and widowed women are more likely to be living below the poverty line than married or never-married women.[24] According to Islamic law, daughters inherit half as much as sons. In the absence of a son, daughters can inherit only after the settling of all debts and other obligations. In principle, wives are entitled to half of the assets of a deceased husband. Under Hindu law, a widow (or all widows in the case of a polygamous marriage) inherits the same share as a son. For Christians, the Succession Act of 1925 provides for equal inheritance between sons and daughters.[25] Note that at the time of drafting the government had introduced a National Women Development Policy (2011) which is set to provide equal inheritance rights for women, but it is unclear how this policy will be implemented without contradicting existing laws.[26]

Restricted Physical Integrity

Rape and sexual harassment are criminal offences under the Prevention of Cruelty Against Women and Children Act, adopted in 2000, which establishes the death penalty for those found guilty of rape charges.[27] However, these laws have proven difficult to enforce, especially in rural areas.[28] According to the US Department of State human rights report for 2011, police often fail to adequately investigate reports of rape, or allow perpetrators to be freed after the payment of a fine.[29] In addition, under the law, rape victims must file police reports and obtain medical certificates within 24 hours of the crime in order to press charges; this prevents most rape cases from reaching the courts.[30] The Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act became law in 2010.[31] According to the 2011 report to the CEDAW committee, the new law will enable the granting of temporary and permanent protection orders, and the imprisonment of abusers.[32] According to a 2007 survey, more than half of ever-married women reported experiencing some form of physical or sexual violence in their marriages.[33] Women themselves are likely to report acceptance of domestic violence. According to data collected for the 2007 DHS, more than one-third of women believe that a husband is justified in beating his wife. Acceptance is highest among married women age 15-19, while women who are wealthier or live in urban areas are most likely to believe that domestic violence is never justified.[34] Further, just one quarter of women who experienced domestic violence reported telling someone about it.[35] Dowry-related domestic violence is also considered to be widespread, with cases of women suffering beatings and even death at the hands of their husbands when their natal families have refused or failed to make dowry payments.[36] According to the 2010 CEDAW report, there were 4487 cases of dowry-related violence reported in 2008.[37] A World Bank Survey on Gender Norms also reported in the CEDAW report found that women were more likely to experience domestic violence in cases where their family had agreed to pay a dowry.[38]

Gender-based violence outside the home includes sexual harassment in the workplace and in public spaces (known as ‘eve teasing’), assaults and rape. There are also reports of women accused of sexual misconduct (in the eyes of their accusers) suffering physical and mental violence as the targets of vigilantism, including social exclusion, whippings, and hilla, or forced marriage; according to the US Department of State, these have sometimes been at the instigation of local level religious leaders.[39] Acid attacks – where acid is thrown at the face, usually causing permanent disfigurement – are also reported, and are usually undertaken as an act of revenge by a rejected suitor, following accusations of spousal infidelity, or in response to land disputes (in which cases acid has been used to attack men as well as women).[40] They were specifically criminalised under the 2002 Acid Crime Control Law, and since then, prevalence rates have begun to decrease.[41] Abortion is only legal to save the pregnant woman’s life.[42] According to the US Department of State, information about contraception is freely available, but cost and illiteracy often limits access.[43] Knowledge of contraceptives in Bangladesh is widespread. According to the 2007 DHS, contraceptive knowledge among ever-married and currently married women is nearly universal.[44] Contraceptive usage is also high, with 80% of women interviewed for the DHS reporting that they had used a modern method at some point as a form of family planning.[45] These numbers represent a five-fold increase in the use of modern methods of contraception over the past three decades. These high prevalence rates are related to the government’s social marketing program, which distributes many forms of contraceptives through a network of retail outlets, including a government-supplied brand that is distributed for free or for a nominal charge.[46] More than half of women surveyed in the 2007 DHS received their contraceptives from a public-sector source, although the private sector is gaining ground.[47] Bangladesh has integrated contraceptive distribution into its Rural Services Delivery Program, including IUD insertion.[48]

Son Bias

According to data from the 2007 DHS, rates of vaccination are very high in Bangladesh: 82.5% of girls and 81.2% of boys under the age of two included in the survey had had all their basic vaccinations.[49] Rates of malnutrition were slightly higher for boys than for girls, as were under-five mortality rates.[50] Overall, this would not indicate bias towards sons in regard to early childhood care. According to the Multi Cluster Indicator Survey for Bangladesh for 2006, 3.8% of girls aged 5-14 were undertaking more than 28 hours of domestic labour within the home, compared to 0.9% of boys, indicating preferential treatment towards sons in regard to the allocation of household chores.[51] Of women aged 20-24 interviewed for the 2007 DHS, 15.4% had received no education at all, while 15.6% had completed secondary school or gone on to tertiary-level education.[52] For men in that age bracket, 25.1% had received no education, while 14.7% had completed secondary school or gone on to tertiary-level education. This would indicate some preference towards educating daughters over sons. The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 0.95.[53] Elevated sex ratios at birth and in juvenile age groups indicate that Bangladesh is a country of concern for missing women although there has been improvement in recent years.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

It is unclear what women’s legal rights are to own and manage land and property other than land in Bangladesh. Despite their growing role in agriculture, social practices effectively exclude women from direct access to land.[54] It is customary for a woman not to claim her share of the family property unless it is given willingly. Women often surrender their right to property in exchange for the right to visit their parental home and seek their brothers’ assistance in cases of marital conflict.[55] Households headed by women, which make up almost 30% of the total in the country’s eastern provinces, are more likely to suffer extreme forms of poverty and landlessness.[56] In Bangladesh, women’s access to bank loans and other forms of credit is limited. Most women lack the collateral to receive loans from banks. Low literacy rates also hamper women’s access to the formal financial sector.[57] In addition, just 30.5% of currently married women who earned a living interviewed for the 2007 DHS reported having sole decision-making power over how that money was used.[58] Nearly 12% reported that their husband had sole power.[59] In recent years micro-credit programs operated by the government, NGOs, and the Grameen Bank have substantially increased the number of women employed outside the household in self-employed entrepreneurships, and also in manual labor and manufacturing.[60] However, 43% of women are still employed in agriculture, the vast majority as unpaid family labor.[61]

Restricted Civil Liberties

There are no reported legal restrictions on women’s freedom ofaccess to public space, however in 2010 the government reported that in practice, women’s movement is commonly limited to their homes and local areas due to discriminatory social norms.[62] The situation in regard to freedom of speech, assembly, and association has recently improved, with the lifting of the Emergency Powers Rules in 2008.[63] The 2010 CEDAW report notes that the media are active in challenging gender stereotypes, and raising issues that they feel are relevant to women.[64] There appears to be an active and vocal women’s rights movement in Bangladesh, operating particularly in the areas of gender-based violence prevention and support to victims, and providing microcredit and other forms of support to disadvantaged women.[65] With respect to political participation, there are 64 women in Bangladesh’s 345-seat Parliament as of November 2009.[66] The constitution mandates that 45 of those seats are reserved for women. In 1997, one-third of the local Government seats of members were reserved for women.[67] These female representatives are nominated by their political parties and are allocated via the proportional representation of the parties in the other 300 seats.[68] According to a 2002 World Values Survey, 62.1% of Bangladeshis agree or agree strongly with the statement, “On the whole, men make better political leaders than women do, while 29.5% disagreed.[69] However a 2007 Pew survey found the number that preferred men reduced to 52%, with 41% believing that men and women were equally qualified.[70] Despite this some of the highest-ranking elected and appointed leader in politics, including the previous Prime Minister, have been women.[71] The Bangladesh Labour Act of 2006 increased the amount of employer-funded paid maternity leave to sixteen weeks. [72] Attitudes towards working women are mixed in Bangladesh. In a 2002 survey, 59.5% agreed or agreed strongly with the statement, “A working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work.” However, 36.9% disagreed.[73] Further, 46.2% disagreed with the statement “Being a housewife is just as fulfilling as working for pay,” although this number had dropped more than 10% since 1996.[74] 68.2% of Bangladeshis (and 57.8% of women) also believe that women should give up their jobs to men in tough economic times when jobs are scarce, although more than 86% believe that both men and women should contribute to household income.[75]

References

  1. BBC (n.d.) ‘Bangladesh profile’, BBC News, www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12650940 (accessed 15 November 2011)
  2. See reference 1
  3. See reference 1
  4. See reference 1; Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2011) World Factbook: Bangladesh, Washington, DC: CIA, ONLINE EDITION, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html (Accessed 15 November 2011)
  5. World Bank (n.d.) ‘Data: Bangladesh’, Washington, the World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/country/bangladesh (accessed 15 November 2011)
  6. CEDAW (2010) Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined sixth and seventh periodic report of States parties Bangladesh, CEDAW/C/BGD/6-7, CEDAW, New York
  7. Engendering Democracy (2011) Bangladesh government Okays national women development policy, Available at http://www.engenderingdemocracy.net/news/bangladesh-govt-okays-national-women-development-policy-ahead-intl-womens-day-today, viewed 19 March 2012.
  8. See Reference 6
  9. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012.; See Reference 6
  10. Articles 27-29 of the 1971 Constitution of Bangladesh in Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs (MoWCA) (2009), p. 8.
  11. United Nations Treaty Collection (UNTC) (2011): Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. - CEDAW: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 15 November 2011) - Optional Protocol: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8-b&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 15 November 2011)
  12. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012. p.129, p.141
  13. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012.p.11
  14. Birth and Death Registration Act, 2004 and Muslim Marriages and Divorces (Registration Amendment) Rules, 2005 in CEDAW (2010) Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined sixth and seventh periodic report of States parties Bangladesh, CEDAW/C/BGD/6-7, CEDAW, New York , p.27. It is unclear whether these laws are being implemented effectively.
  15. United Nations (Un) (2004), World Fertility Report 2003, UN Department Of Economic And Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY., p. 24; UN (2008), World Marriage Data 2008, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY.
  16. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) et al., (2006), Table CP.4; National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, and Macro International (2009) , Table 6.3.
  17. Pew Research Center (2007), Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2007 Survey, Pew Global Attitudes Project, Washington, DC, Question Q.44.
  18. See Reference 6, p.9
  19. US Department of State (2010), 2009 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Bangladesh, US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Washington, DC. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/sca/154478.htm (accessed 15 November 2011).
  20. World Values Survey (WVS) (2002), Selected Country/Sample: Bangladesh, World Values Survey, available http://worldvaluessurvey.org (accessed 12 January 2009), Question D076.
  21. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1997). Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Bangladesh, Third and Fourth Periodic Report of States Parties, CEDAW/C/BGD/3-4, CEDAW: New York, NY, p. 81; CEDAW (2003), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Bangladesh, Fifth Periodic Report of States Parties, CEDAW/C/BGD/5, CEDAW, New York, NY, p. 41-42.
  22. Freedom House (2010) ‘Freedom in the World country reports: Bangladesh’, www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2010&country=7778 (accessed 15 November 2011)
  23. SEE REFERENCE 20, Question F121.
  24. SEE REFERENCE 6, p.17
  25. Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs (MoWCA) [Bangladesh], (2009), 6th and 7th Combined Report (2001-2009), Convention of the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination: Bangladesh, Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs: Dhaka, Bangladesh., pp. 102-103; Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2007), pp. 36-37; Steinzor, Nadia (USAID) (2003), Women’s Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in Changing Times, Final Synthesis and Conference Proceedings Paper, USAID Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support and Research, Washington, DC, p. 8.
  26. See reference 7
  27. US Department of State (2011); See Reference 6, p.28
  28. CEDAW (2003), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Bangladesh, Fifth Periodic Report of States Parties, CEDAW/C/BGD/5, CEDAW, New York, NY, pp. 16, 19-21.
  29. US Department of State (2011)
  30. Reference 22
  31. CEDAW (2011) Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined sixth and seventh periodic report Bangladesh, CEDAW/C/BGD/Q/7/Add.1, CEDAW, New York, p.6
  32. Reference 31 p.6
  33. National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, and Macro International (2009), Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, and Macro International: Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, Maryland, USA, Table 14.1
  34. See reference 33 Table 13.6.1.
  35. See reference 33 Table 14.9
  36. US Department of State (2011); See Reference 6, p.89
  37. See Reference 6, P.89
  38. See Reference 6, p.89-90
  39. US Department of State (2011)
  40. See Reference 6, P.90
  41. See Reference 6, pp.28, 89; Reference 22
  42. UN (2011) ‘World Abortion Policies 2011’, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/2011abortion/2011wallchart.pdf
  43. US Department of State (2011) 2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Sri Lanka, Available http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3452.htm
  44. See reference 33 , Table 5.1
  45. See reference 33, Table 5.3.
  46. See reference 33, p. 65.
  47. See reference 33, Table 5.12.
  48. Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs (MoWCA) [Bangladesh], (2009), 6th and 7th Combined Report (2001-2009), Convention of the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination: Bangladesh, Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs: Dhaka, Bangladesh., p. 69.
  49. See reference 33, Table 10.2
  50. See reference 33, Tables 8.3 and 11.1
  51. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People Republic of Bangladesh (2007) Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, UNICEF, New York, NY, Table CP.2
  52. See reference 33, Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2
  53. Central Intelligence Agency (2012) The World Fact Book: Sex Ratio, available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html, accessed 29 February 2012.
  54. JICA (2007), p. 6.
  55. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Land Coalition (ILC) (2004), Rural Women’s Access to Land and Property in Selected Countries: Progress Towards Achieving the Aims of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, FAO Gender and Population Division, IFAD Technical Advisory Division, and ILC, Rome, p. 42
  56. JICA (2007), pp. 39-40.
  57. Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs (MoWCA) [Bangladesh], (2009), 6th and 7th Combined Report (2001-2009), Convention of the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination: Bangladesh, Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs: Dhaka, Bangladesh, p. 103.
  58. See reference 33, Table 13.2.
  59. See reference 33, Table 13.2.
  60. See Cotula, L. for the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Legal Office (2002 [2007]), Gender and Law: Women’s Rights in Agriculture, FAO Legislative Study No. 76, 2002 (revised 2007), Rome. Available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4311e/y4311e00.pdf, pp.138-139
  61. JICA (2007), pp. 42-43.
  62. See Reference 6, P.17
  63. Reference 22
  64. See Reference 6, P.57
  65. See See Reference 6; US Department of State (2011)
  66. Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (2010), Women in Parliament: All Countries on National Parliaments, IPU: Geneva, http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm.
  67. See Reference 6
  68. Reference 192011)
  69. See Reference 20, Question D059.
  70. Reference 17., Question Q.43.
  71. Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs (MoWCA) [Bangladesh], (2009), 6th and 7th Combined Report (2001-2009), Convention of the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination: Bangladesh, Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs: Dhaka, Bangladesh., pp. 63-64; Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2011) World Factbook: Bangladesh, Washington, Dc: CIA, ONLINE EDITION, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html (ACCESSED 15 NOVEMBER 2011)
  72. Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs (MoWCA) [Bangladesh], (2009), 6th and 7th Combined Report (2001-2009), Convention of the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination: Bangladesh, Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs: Dhaka, Bangladesh., pp. 38-39; International Labour Organization (ILO) (2009), Database of Conditions and Work Employment Laws, ILO: Geneva, Switzerland, accessed 13 January 2010.
  73. See Reference 20, Question Do56; World Bank Group (2009), Women’s Economic Opportunity Index. World Bank Group, Washington, DC., Indicator 4.4.
  74. See Reference 20, Question D057; WVS (1996), Selected Country/Sample: Bangladesh, World Values Survey, available http://worldvaluessurvey.org (accessed 12 January 2010)., Selected Country/Sample: Bangladesh, Question D057.
  75. See Reference 20, Question C001; World Bank Group (2009), Women’s Economic Opportunity Index. World Bank Group, Washington, DC., Indicator 4.5; See Reference 20, Question D058.

External Link

The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women?  

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Bangladesh, please visit the Women, Business and
the Law Bangladesh
page.

Sources

The FAO Gender and Landrights Database

The FAO Gender and Landrights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender
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inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access

is one of the major causes for social and gender in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.

Six categories

The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:

  • National legal frame
  • International treaties and conventions
  • Customary law
  • Land tenure and related Institutions
  • Civil society organizations
  • Selected Land Related Statistics

For detailed information information on Bangladesh, please visit the report on in the FAO Gender and Landrights Database.

Sources


External Links


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