Crime against Women in India, 2010
The National Crime Records Bureau has recently brought out statistics on crime in India for the year 2010, with a separate chapter devoted to crime against women.
Although women may be victims of any of the general crimes such as murder, robbery, cheating, etc, only the crimes which are directed specifically against women are characterized as ‘crimes against women’. Various new legislations have been brought and amendments have been made in existing laws with a view to handle these crimes effectively. These are broadly classified under two categories.
Crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
(i) Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)
(ii) Kidnapping & abduction for specified purposes (Sec. 363 - 373 IPC)
(iii) Homicide for dowry, dowry deaths or their attempts (Sec. 302/304-B IPC)
(iv) Torture - both mental and physical (Sec. 498-A IPC)
(v) Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)
(vi) Sexual harassment (Sec. 509 IPC)
(vii) Importation of girls (up to 21 years of age) (Sec. 366-B IPC)
Crimes under Special & Local Laws (SLL)
Although all laws are not gender specific, the provisions of law affecting women significantly have been reviewed periodically and amendments carried out to keep pace with the emerging requirements. The gender specific laws for which crime statistics are recorded throughout the country are -
(i) Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
(ii) Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
(iii) Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
(iv) Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987
Reported Incidents of Crime against Women (Incidence 2, 13,585)
A total of 2,13,585 incidents of crime against women (both under IPC and SLL) were reported in the country during 2010 as compared to 2,03,804 during 2009 recording an increase of 4.8% during 2010. These crimes have continuously increased during 2006 - 2010 with 1,64,765 cases in 2006, 1,85,312 cases in 2007, 1,95,856 cases in 2008, 2,03,804 cases in 2009 and 2,13,585 cases in 2010. Andhra Pradesh, accounting for nearly 7.1% of the country’s population, has accounted for 12.8% of total crimes against women in the country by reporting 27,244 cases. West Bengal with 7.6% share of country’s population has accounted for nearly 12.2% of total crime against women by reporting 26,125 cases in 2010.
Crime Rate 18.0
The rate of crime has increased marginally from 17.4 during the year 2009 to 18.0 during 2010. Tripura reported the highest rate of crime against women at 46.5 during 2010.
Crime against women has increased by 4.8% over 2009 and by 29.6% over 2006. The IPC component of crimes against women has accounted for 96.0% of total crimes and the rest 4.0% were SLL crimes against women. The proportion of IPC crimes committed against women towards total IPC crimes has increased continually during last 5 years from 8.2% in 2006 to 9.6% during 2010.
Rape (Sec. 376 IPC) (Incidence 22,172; Rate 1.9)
An increasing trend in cases of rape has been observed during 2006 - 2008. A mixed trend in the incidence of rape has been observed during 2008 - 2010. These cases reported an increase of 7.2% in 2007 over 2006, an increase of 3.5% in 2008 over 2007, a decline of 0.3% in 2009 over 2008 and an increase of 3.6% in 2010 over 2009.
Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest number of Rape cases (3,135) accounting for 14.1% of total such cases reported in the country. However, Mizoram has reported the highest crime rate 9.1 as compared to national average of 1.9.
Rape cases have been further categorized as Incest rape and other rape cases.
Incest Rape (Incidence 288)
Incest rape cases have decreased by 10.3% from 321 cases in 2009 to 288 cases in 2010 as compared to 3.6% increase in overall rape cases. Maharashtra (44) has accounted for the highest (15.3%) of the total such cases reported in the country.
There were 22,193 victims of Rape out of 22,172 reported rape cases in the country. 8.9% (1,975) of the total victims of rape were girls under 14 years of age, while 16.1% (3,570) were teenaged girls (14-18 years). 57.4% (12,749) were women in the age-group 18-30 years. 3,763 victims (17.0%) were in the age-group of 30-50 years while 0.6% (136) were over 50 years of age.
Offenders were known to the victims in as many as 21,566 (97.3%) cases. Parents / close family members were involved in 1.3% (288 out of 21,566) of these cases, neighbors were involved in 36.2% cases (7,816 out of 21,566) and relatives were involved in 6.2% (1,344 out of 21,566) cases.
Kidnapping & Abduction (Sec. 363-373 IPC) (Incidence 29,795; Rate 2.5)
These cases have reported an increase of 15.7% as compared to previous year (25,741). Uttar Pradesh (5,468) has accounted for 18.4% of the total cases at the national level. Delhi UT has reported the highest rate at 9.5 as compared to the national average of 2.5.
Dowry Deaths (Sec. 302, 304B IPC) (Incidence 8,391; Rate 0.7)
These cases have increased by 0.1%over the previous year (8,383). 26.4% of the total such cases reported in the country were reported from Uttar Pradesh (2,217) alone followed by Bihar (1,257) (15.0%). The highest rate of crime (1.3) was reported from Bihar as compared to the national average of 0.7.
Torture (Cruelty by Husband & Relatives) (Sec. 498 A IPC) (Incidence 94,041; Rate 7.9)
Torture cases in the country have increased by 5.0% over the previous year (89,546). 18.9% of these were reported from West Bengal (17,796). The highest rate of 26.0 was reported from Tripura as compared to the National rate at 7.9.
Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC) (Incidence 40,613; Rate 3.4)
Incidents of molestation in the country have increased by 4.9% over the previous year (38,711). Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest incidence (6,646) amounting to 16.4% of total such cases. Tripura has reported the highest rate (10.4) as compared to the national average of 3.4.
Sexual Harassment (Sec. 509 IPC) (Incidence 9,961; Rate 0.8)
The number of such cases has decreased by 9.5% over the previous year (11,009). Andhra Pradesh has reported 45.8% of cases (4,562) followed by Maharashtra 11.8% (2,524). Andhra Pradesh has reported the highest crime rate 5.4 as compared to the national average of 0.8.
Importation of Girls (Sec. 366-B IPC) (Incidence 36)
A decrease of 25.0% has been observed in such cases as 36 cases were reported during the year 2010 as compared to 48 cases in the previous year (2009). Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal have reported 8 cases each accounting for two-third of total such cases at the national level.
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (Incidence 2,499; Rate 0.2)
Cases under this Act have registered an increase of 1.0% during the year as compared to the previous year (2,474). 22.7% (567) cases were reported from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh accounted for 21.9% (548).
Commission of Sati Prevention Act (Incidence Nil)
No case was registered under this Act in 2010.
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act (Incidence 895; Rate 0.1)
An increase of 5.9% was noticed in cases under this Act as compared to previous year (845). Andhra Pradesh with 753 cases has accounted for 84.1% of total such cases at the national level which has also reported the highest crime rate of 0.9 as compared to the National average rate of 0.1.
Dowry Prohibition Act (Incidence 5,182; Rate 0.4)
The cases under this Act have decreased by 8.3% as compared to the previous year (5,650). 22.9% cases were reported from Andhra Pradesh (1,186) followed by Karnataka (1,077) accounting for 20.8% of total cases at the National level. The highest crime rate was reported from Odisha (Orissa) at 2.3 as compared to 0.4 at the national level.
Crime against Women in Cities (All-India 2, 13,585; Cities 24,335)
35 cities having population over 10 lakh (1 million) have been identified as mega cities as per population census 2001. A total of 24,335 cases of crimes against women were reported from these 35 cities as compared to 23,983 cases in the year 2009 reporting an increase of 1.5%. The rate of crime in cities at 22.6 was comparatively higher as compared to the national rate of 18.0.
Among 35 cities, Delhi (3,886) has accounted for 16.0% of total crimes followed by Hyderabad (1,964) (8.1%). The crime rate was significantly higher in Vijaywada, Jaipur, Faridabad, Lucknow, Visakhapatnam and Agra at 113.7, 50.9, 47.0, 46.4, 45.6 and 45.3 respectively as compared to average of mega cities at 22.6.
Delhi city has accounted for 23.0% of rape cases, 37.7% of Kidnapping & Abduction cases, 14.6% of Dowry Deaths and 16.5% of molestation cases among 35 cities. Hyderabad has reported 12.2% of cases of cruelty by husband and relatives. Vijaywada has reported 16.0% of cases of eve-teasing. Kolkata city has reported 3 out of 7 cases reported under Importation of girls.
It is worthwhile to mention that Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Jaipur have booked more cases under Special & Local Laws among the mega cities. 11.9% (111 out of 934) of cases under Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act and 81.3% (557 out of 685) of Dowry Prohibition Act cases were registered in Bangalore city alone. Similarly, 18.6% (174), 14.3% (134) and 13.2% (123) of 934 cases under Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act were registered in Hyderabad, Chennai and Mumbai respectively. All the 24 out of 26 cases under Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act cases were registered in Jaipur city accounting for 92.3% of such cases.