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Date Article Title Summary
10-03-2008sm=d Affirmative Action Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment for discriminated groups. Motivation for affirmative action policies is to redress the effects of past and current discrimination and to encourage public institutions such as universities, hospitals and police forces to be more representative of the population.
17-03-2008sm=d n/a n/a
24-03-2008sm=d OECD Family Database The OECD Family database features cross-national indicators on family policies and outcomes. The initial phase of indicators presents updated information building on the OECD Babies and Bosses series on the reconciliation of work and family life, including indicators on maternal employment, the nature and extent of childcare participation, and public support and information on parental leave policies.
31-03-2008sm=d Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies The Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies is a non-profit organisation which promotes and contributes to projects of social, political, and economic themes relating to gender. The Institute recognises the multilayered levels of discrimination and is committed to eliminate discrimination using a combination of research, advocacy and lobbying, as well as trainings, conferences, and other activities.
07-04-2008sm=d n/a n/a
14-04-2008sm=d Veil A veil is an article of clothing, which is intended to cover some part of the head or face. The first recorded instance of veiling for women is recorded in an Assyrian legal text from the 13th century BC which restricted its use to noble women and forbade prostitutes and common women from adopting it.
21-04-2008sm=d n/a n/a
28-04-2008sm=d Female Rubber Tappers in the Amazon The female extractivist worker of the Brazilian Amazon carries, like most women in the world, the double burden of working in the forest as well as raising the children, doing housework, preparing the meals, washing and cleaning. As an extractivist she works as coconut breaker, rubber tapper, nut picker, fisher and small farmer. In many cases these women are the sole provider of their families and single mothers.
05-05-2008sm=d n/a n/a
12-05-2008sm=d Gender Equality Gender equality describes the absence of obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on gender. Disparities can include the discrimination in terms of opportunities, resources, services, benefits, decision-making, power and influence.
19-05-2008sm=d Female Genital Mutilation Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons. FGM is practiced throughout the world, but the practice is concentrated more heavily in Africa, Indonesia, and the Middle East.
26-05-2008sm=d Feminization of Poverty
The feminization of poverty is a change in the levels of poverty biased against women or female headed households. More specifically, it is an increase in the difference in the levels of poverty among women and men or among female versus male and couple headed households. It can also mean an increase of the role that gender inequalities have as a determinant of poverty, which would characterize a feminization of the causes of poverty.
02-06-2008sm=d Reconciling Work and Family Life
With greater investment in education, female aspirations and female labour market behaviour has changed so that “dual-earnership” in couple-families has become the norm in many countries. The rise in “dual earnership” and sole-parent households means that finding an optimal balance between work and family commitments has become an issue for almost all parents
09-06-2008sm=d Missing Women In the late 1980s, Nobel Prize laureate Dr. Amartya Sen coined the term "missing women" to describe the large number of women in the world who are literally not alive due to family neglect and discrimination. In 2005, Emily Oster suggested that Hepatitis B could explain part of this phenomenon as carriers of the Hapatitis B virus have offspring sex ratios of 1.5 boys for each girl. However, last month she refuted her own findings based on additional research.
16-06-2008sm=d Polygamy
The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage") can be defined as any form of marriage in which a person has more than one spouse. Polygamy frequently involves one man having multiple wives, which makes it particular relevant in the context of gender equality as women in polygamous relationships are often disadvantaged in terms of their personal development (e.g. less access to education and health care).
23-06-2008sm=d European Commission
Gender equality is a fundamental right and a common value of the European Union (EU). It is a necessary condition for the achievement of EU growth, employment and social cohesion objectives. Gender equality policy contributes to meeting the challenges of globalisation, ageing population and demography.
30-06-2008sm=d Life Expectancy Female life expectancy is considerably higher than those of men, especially subtracting the effect of maternal mortality. Reasons for this are manifold and fall into two groups: social and biological.
07-07-2008sm=d Gender, Institutions and Development
The relevance of social norms for gender equality can be illustrated in many parts of the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of women work in the agricultural sector, but patriarchal traditions often deny them the right to own and manage the land they cultivate. Some countries in the Middle East and North Africa require women to have male company when leaving the house, making it difficult for them to attend educational facilities and engage in business activities independently.
14-07-2008sm=d Freedom of dress Freedom of dress describes the freedom to wear the clothes of one's choice, i.e. without outside pressure, prohibition or legal sanctions. In many countries, this freedom is highly restricted, especially for women (e.g. obligation to wear a veil or headscarf). Although sometimes enforced by formal (i.e. legal) mechanisms, freedom of dress is generally limited due to informal institutions such as social norms, traditions or religious practices.
21-07-2008sm=d Feminism
Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender inequalities and equal rights for women. Throughout much of its history, most feminist leaders and theorists have been predominantly middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America. However, at least since Sojourner Truth's 1851 speech to US Feminists, women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms.
28-07-2008sm=d Social Institutions and Gender Index The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) is a composite indicator of gender equality, introduced by the OECD Development Centre. It solely focuses on social institutions that have an impact on the equality between men and women. Social institutions comprise norms, values and attitudes that exist in a society in relation to women.
04-08-2008sm=d United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) began funding population programs in 1969. It was renamed the United Nations Population Fund in 1987, but kept its original abbreviation. UNFPA is the world's largest international source of funding for population and reproductive health programs.
11-08-2008sm=d Purdah Purdah or Pardaa (literally meaning "curtain") is the practice of preventing men from seeing women. This takes two forms: physical segregation of the sexes, and the requirement for women to cover their bodies and conceal their form. Purdah exists in various forms in the Islamic world and among Hindu women in parts of India.
18-08-2008sm=d Are there more than two genders? What behaviour is typical of men and women in today's world? This is the main research question that a survey of the University of Sydney is currently investigating.
25-08-2008sm=d Women in Sports Female participation in sports rose dramatically in the twentieth century, especially in the latter part, reflecting changes in modern societies that emphasized gender parity. Although the level of participation and performance still varies greatly by country and by sport, women's sports have broad acceptance throughout the world, and in a few instances, such as tennis and figure skating, rival or exceed their male counterparts in popularity.
01-09-2008sm=d Women and African Economic Development Women are a cornerstone of African economic development. According to recent estimates, women provide approximately 70 per cent of agricultural labour and produce about 90 per cent of all food.
08-09-2008sm=d International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOW Politics)
The International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOW Politics) is an online workspace designed to serve the needs of practitioners interested in advancing women in politics. It is a joint project of the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Development Fund for Women, the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
15-09-2008
Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence occurs when a family member, partner or ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically domination another. It often refers to violence between spouses, or spousal abuse but can also include cohabitants and non-married intimate partners. Domestic violence occurs in all cultures; people of all races, ethnicities, religions, sexes and classes can be perpetrators of domestic violence.
22-09-2008 CEDAW he Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.
29-09-2008 Information Guide for Arab Millennium Development Goal Reports The Information Guide for Arab Millennium Development Goal Reports is a report published by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UN-ESCWA). It was launched on 14th September 2008 by the Executive Secretary of ESCWA, Mr. Bader Omar Al-Dafa.
06-10-2008 Access to property Women are very often discriminated against in their access to property. Even if there is no legal discrimination, de facto discrimination concerning the access to property can be important due to cultural values or traditions.
13-10-2008 Access to bank loans Many women cannot secure a bank loan. In Cameroon and Ethiopia, some banks demand the husband's guarantee as one of the conditions for granting a loan to a married woman.
20-10-2008
Empowering Women through Microfinance
Microfinance programs have been increasingly promoted in India for their positive economic impact and the belief that they empower women. Within the South Asian context, women empowerment is a process in which women challenge the existing norms and culture, to effectively improve their well-being.
27-10-2008
Gender Equity Index
The Gender Equity Index (GEI) was introduced by the Social Watch in 2004 to measure inequities in different areas of women's and men's everyday lives around the world. The 2008 GEI ranks 157 countries by measuring women's relative economic activity, education and empowerment.
3-11-2008 Working Patterns in Couple Households The challenge of combining family and professional life is one that affects the whole family. Even in the western countries of Europe, it is now increasingly the case that a single earned income is insufficient to meet the needs of a family; as a result both parents often have to work from financial necessity. In addition, women today have better levels of education and often do not wish to entirely give up their careers to have a family.
10-11-2008
Income Inequality and Poverty in the OECD
The gap between rich and poor has grown in more than three-quarters of OECD countries over the past two decades. A key driver of income inequality has been the number of low-skilled and poorly educated who are out of work. More people living alone or in single-parent households has also contributed.
17-11-2008
Gender and Firm Performance With financial support from Iceland, Germany and Switzerland, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and IFC are implementing a research and consultation project to help private enterprises worldwide create new opportunities for women and adopt best practices in sustainability reporting. Visit Wikigender's Corporate Social Responsibility and Gender to learn more about how gender can affect companies’ performance. We look forward to your contribution to produce a new practical resource guide intended for companies that want to establish themselves as leaders in managing gender issues.
24-11-2008
Gender Equality in Iceland
Fostered by a high level of human development, gender equality is very advanced in Iceland compared to most countries in the world. Advances have not happened by chance. The country supports gender equality through central regional and national bureaus that oversee the implementation of anti-discrimination laws.
01-12-2008
Gender Equality and Financing for Development
Financing for gender equality is a critical part of the discussion on financing for development, in that sustainable economic growth and human development require women’s full participation in the economy, making it necessary to tailor development finance to the needs of both women and men.
08-12-2008
Fourth World Conference on Women
The United Nations convened the Fourth World Conference on Women on September 4-September 15, 1995 in Beijing, China. Delegates had prepared a Platform for Action that aimed at achieving greater equality and opportunity for women. The three previous World Conferences had been held in Mexico City (International Women's Year, 1975), Copenhagen (1980) and Nairobi (1985).
15-12-2008
Gender Law
The legal and regulatory environment within a country can often have a significant impact on the ability of women to engage in business activities and become entrepreneurs. Labor laws, property rights, family law, and inheritance rights all have the ability to affect female entrepreneurs differently from male entrepreneurs.
22-12-2008
Arranged Marriage
An arranged marriage is a marriage that is set up by someone other than the persons getting married, curtailing or avoiding the process of courtship. Such marriages are not uncommon in the Middle East, parts of Africa, and Asia. In many communities, priests or religious leaders as well as trusted relatives or family friends play a major role in matchmaking.
29-12-2008
World's Women 2008/2009
To date, women are outnumbered 4 to 1 in legislatures around the world; the majority of all unpaid family workers globally are women; women earn 17 per cent less than men; in sub-Saharan Africa, three women are infected with HIV for every two men; and in some parts of the world, 1 in 10 women dies from pregnancy-related causes even though the means for preventing maternal mortality are cost-effective and well-known
05-01-2009 Gender Equality in Saudi Arabia Religion affects all aspects of life in Saudi Arabia. The country’s Sunni Muslims - about 90 percent of the population – are governed by very conservative interpretations of Islam. Societal norms and rules are patriarchal and women are treated and seen as second-class citizens only. As such, they continue to face discrimination in most areas of society.
12-01-2009 Infibulation Infibulation is the practice of surgical closure of the labia majora (outer lips of the vulva) by sewing them together to partially seal the vagina, leaving only a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. The legs are bound together for approximately two weeks to allow the labia to heal into a barrier
19-01-2009
Alcohol Consumption and Gender Equality
Alcohol consumption more severely affects women than men, according to a study published in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Women become alcohol dependent more quickly than men. Furthermore, alcohol more severely impairs women's cognitive functioning including perceptual and visual planning and processing, working memory and motor control.
26-01-2009 n/a n/a
02-02-2009 n/a n/a
09-02-2009
Misogyny
Misogyny is a term that refers to the hatred of girls and women. Its counterpart is misandy, the hatred of boys and men. The term derives from the Greek word misos (μῖσος, "hatred") and anēr, gynos (ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός; "woman"). Today, misogyny can be found in all media - from music (misogynist lyrics in hip-hop music); art (overtly sexual depiction of women in art, including comics and film), and in political debates.
16-02-2009
Gender Differences in Sleep Patterns
Experts suggest that most men and women need about seven to eight hours of sleep each night. Yet there are many differences in how men and women sleep. Women tend to sleep more on average but sleep less deeply and are more prone to sleep disorders, including insomnia. During their 20s and 30s, women also complain of being sleepy during the day, a possible symptom of the work/family responsibilities they face in this period.

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